Congress passed the Fair Sentencing Act of 2010 to reduce the vast and heavily criticized disparity between crack cocaine and powder cocaine sentences.
Implementing the FSA has not been easy, though, as federal appeals courts have split over when it applies. Two of these cases could reach the Supreme Court soon as petitions for certiorari, and a third is already there.
In July, the 7th Circuit decided United States v. Holcomb, a consolidation of appeals involving four defendants. Each committed crack offenses before the FSA became law, but was sentenced after, receiving lower FSA sentences. For one defendant, the difference was 33 months (within the FSA range) versus 120 months (pre-FSA mandatory minimum).
A three-judge 7th Circuit panel, citing prior circuit precedent, found that the FSA only applies to offenses committed after it became law and that the sentencing date is irrelevant. As a result, the defendants would get the higher sentences. This had been the federal government’s position.
About a week later, though, Attorney General Eric Holder issued a “Memorandum for All Federal Prosecutors” that rejected this approach. Originally, prosecutors had been told that the FSA only applied to post-FSA offenses. However, as Holder explained, confusion in the courts and “the serious impact on the criminal justice system of continuing to impose unfair penalties” had caused him to review and change the policy. Going forward, the FSA would apply to post-FSA sentences, regardless of the offense date.
After the government notified the 7th Circuit of the policy change, the court denied rehearing en banc sua sponte. The vote was a tie, 5-5, leaving the earlier decision intact.
Chief Judge Frank Easterbrook, writing for the four other judges opposed to rehearing en banc, focused on 1 U.S.C. § 109. Under that section, repealing a statute does not “extinguish any penalty” of the old statute, except where expressly stated in the “repealing Act.” Put another way, the FSA is not retroactive unless it says so. And it doesn’t, Easterbrook concluded. He also saw no implied retroactivity.
Judge Ann Claire Williams, joined by the four other judges who voted for rehearing, called this result “wrong” and “nonsensical.” Judge Richard Posner, who joined Williams, but also wrote a separate individual dissent, went further, deeming it “gratuitously silly” and “perverse.”
The FSA, Williams noted, gives the Sentencing Commission “emergency authority” to promulgate guidelines consistent with the FSA “as soon as practicable.” Also, the FSA states that it is “restor[ing] fairness to Federal cocaine sentencing.” Williams questioned why Congress would rush to replace admittedly unfair sentences, only to continue imposing them.
As both sides pointed out, there is a 3-2 split among the federal appellate courts on when to apply the FSA. The 1st, 3rd and 11th Circuits are in sync with Williams’ opinion, while the 8th Circuit squares with the 7th Circuit holding defended by Easterbrook.
The 7th and 8th Circuit cases are likely to be appealed to the Supreme Court soon. Like the 7th Circuit, the 8th Circuit recently denied rehearing en banc. Also, an earlier 7th Circuit case on FSA retroactivity, Fisher v. United States, is already pending before the Court as a petition. It was distributed for the September 26 conference, but the Court took no action, perhaps waiting in anticipation of further petitions. (See also Dorsey v. United States, consolidated with Fisher below.)
Because of the circuit split, and the practical implications for many defendants, the Supreme Court may decide to grant certiorari. If so, the scenario will be different than most, since the winner in the 7th and 8th Circuits, the government, now disagrees with those decisions. In such cases, the Court can appoint an attorney to defend the judgments below. Often, as Legal Times has reported, former Supreme Court clerks get this nod.
The government has not appealed its losses in the 1st, 3rd and 11th Circuits, but the latter is still pending. On October 4, the 11th Circuit ordered rehearing en banc sua sponte.